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Reels 5 Reels. Software Playtech. First Dynasty. Terracotta Wilds. Exploiting these beliefs of hers, secret police officials, including Suo Yuanli , Zhou Xing , and Lai Junchen , began to rise in power and to carry out systematic false accusations, tortures, and executions of individuals.
Wu summoned senior members of Tang's Li imperial clan to Luoyang. The imperial princes worried that she planned to slaughter them and secure the throne for herself: thus, they plotted to resist her.
The other princes were not yet ready, however, and did not rise, and forces sent by Empress Dowager Wu and the local forces crushed Li Chong and Li Zhen's forces quickly.
Even Princess Taiping's husband Xue Shao was implicated and starved to death. In the subsequent years, there continued to be many politically motivated massacres of officials and Li clan members.
In , Wu took the final step to become the empress regnant of the newly proclaimed Zhou dynasty , and the title Huangdi.
Traditional Chinese order of succession akin to the Salic law in Europe did not allow a woman to ascend the throne, but Wu Zetian was determined to quash the opposition and the use of the secret police did not subside, but continued, after her taking the throne.
While her organization of the civil service system was criticized for its laxity of the promotion of officials, nonetheless, Wu Zetian was considered capable of evaluating the performance of the officials once they were in office.
The Song dynasty historian Sima Guang , in his Zizhi Tongjian , commented: . Even though the Empress Dowager [note 11] excessively used official titles to cause people to submit to her, if she saw that someone was incompetent, she would immediately depose or even execute him.
She grasped the powers of punishment and award, controlled the state, and made her own judgments as to policy decisions. She was observant and had good judgment, so the talented people of the time also were willing to be used by her.
In , Wu had Emperor Ruizong yield the throne to her and established the Zhou dynasty, with herself as the imperial ruler Huangdi.
The early part of her reign was characterized by secret police terror, which moderated as the years went by. She was, on the other hand, recognized as a capable and attentive ruler even by traditional historians who despised her, and her ability at selecting capable men to serve as officials was admired throughout the rest of the Tang dynasty as well as in subsequent dynasties.
She also enshrined seven generations of Wu ancestors at the imperial ancestral temple, although she also continued to offer sacrifices to the Tang emperors Gaozu, Taizong, and Gaozong.
She faced the issue of succession. At the time she took the throne, she created Li Dan, the former Emperor Ruizong, crown prince, and bestowed the name of Wu on him.
Wu Zetian was tempted to do so, and when the chancellors Cen Changqian and Ge Fuyuan opposed sternly, they, along with fellow chancellor Ouyang Tong , were executed.
Nevertheless, she declined Wang's request to make Wu Chengsi crown prince, but for a time allowed Wang to freely enter the palace to see her. On one occasion, however, when Wang angered her by coming to the palace too much, she asked the official Li Zhaode to batter Wang as punishment—but Li Zhaode exploited the opportunity to batter Wang to death, and his group of petitioners scattered.
Li Zhaode then persuaded Wu Zetian to keep Li Dan as crown prince—pointing out that a son was closer in relations than a nephew, and also that if Wu Chengsi became emperor, Emperor Gaozong would never again be worshiped.
Wu Zetian agreed, and for some time did not reconsider the matter. She utilized imperial examination system to find talents from poor people or people without backgrounds.
Hence, she could stablize her regime. Also in , Wu Zetian commissioned the general Wang Xiaojie to attack the Tibetan Empire , and Wang recaptured the four garrisons of the Western Regions that had fallen to the Tibetan Empire in — Kucha , Yutian , Kashgar , and Suyab.
Li Dan, fearful that he was to be next, did not dare to speak of them. When Wei further planned to falsely accuse Li Dan, however, someone else informed on her, and she was executed.
There were then accusations that Li Dan was plotting treason, and under Wu Zetian's direction, Lai launched an investigation.
Lai arrested Li Dan's servants and tortured them—and the torture was such that many of them were ready to falsely implicate themselves and Li Dan.
One of Li Dan's servants, An Jincang , however, proclaimed Li Dan's innocence and cut his own belly open to swear to that fact. When Wu Zetian heard of what An did, she had doctors attend to An and barely save his life, and then ordered Lai to end the investigation, thus saving Li Dan.
In , Li Zhaode, who had become powerful after Wu Chengsi's removal, was thought to be too powerful and Wu Zetian removed him.
During this time, Wu briefly claimed to be and adopted the cult imagery of Maitreya in order to build popular support for her reign. Subsequently, she also put Huaiyi to death.
After this incident, she appeared to pay less attention to mysticism and became even more dedicated than before to the affairs of state.
Wu Zetian's administration was soon in for various troubles on the western and then northern borders. A much more serious threat arose in summer Armies that Wu Zetian sent to suppress Li and Sun's rebellion were defeated by Khitan forces, which in turn attacked Zhou proper.
Meanwhile, Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate offered to submit, and yet was also launching attacks against Zhou and Khitan—including an attack against Khitan base of operations during the winter of , shortly after Li's death, that captured Li's and Sun's families and temporarily halted Khitan operations against Zhou.
In summer , Ashina Mochuo launched another attack on Khitan's base of operations, and this time, after his attack, Khitan forces collapsed and Sun was killed in flight, ending the Khitan threat.
Meanwhile, also in , Lai Junchen, who had at one point lost power but then had returned to power, falsely accused Li Zhaode who had been pardoned of crimes, and then planned to falsely accuse Li Dan, Li Zhe, the Wu clan princes, and Princess Taiping, of treason.
The Wu clan princes and Princess Taiping acted first against him, accusing him of crimes, and he and Li Zhaode were executed together. After Lai's death, the reign of the secret police largely ended.
Gradually, many of the victims of Lai and the other secret police officials were exonerated posthumously. Around , Wu Chengsi and another nephew of Wu Zetian's, Wu Sansi , the Prince of Liang, were repeatedly making attempts to have officials persuade Wu Zetian to create one of them crown prince—again citing the reason that an emperor should pass the throne to someone of the same clan.
Di Renjie, who by now had become a trusted chancellor, was firmly against the idea, however, and proposed that Li Zhe be recalled instead.
He was supported in this by fellow chancellors Wang Fangqing and Wang Jishan , as well as Wu Zetian's close advisor Ji Xu , who further persuaded the Zhang brothers to support the idea as well.
In spring , Wu Zetian agreed and recalled Li Zhe from exile. Soon, Li Dan offered to yield the crown prince position to Li Zhe, and Wu Zetian created Li Zhe crown prince.
Later, Ashina Mochuo demanded a Tang dynasty prince for marriage to his daughter, part of a plot to join his family with the Tang, displace the Zhou, and restore Tang rule over China under his influence.
In , however, at least the Tibetan threat would cease. Emperor Tridu Songtsen , unhappy that Gar Trinring was monopolizing power, took an opportunity when Trinring was away from the capital Lhasa to slaughter Trinring's associates.
He then defeated Trinring in battle, and Trinring committed suicide. After this, the Tibetan Empire was under internal turmoil for several years, and there was peace for Zhou on the border.
Also in , Wu Zetian, realizing that she was growing old, feared that after her death, Li Xian and the Wu clan princes would not be able to have peace with each other, and she made him, Li Dan, Princess Taiping, Princess Taiping's second husband Wu Youji a nephew of hers , the Prince of Ding, and other Wu clan princes to swear an oath to each other.
As Wu Zetian grew older, Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong became increasingly powerful, and even the princes of the Wu clan flattered them.
She also increasingly relied on them to handle the affairs of state. She ordered the three of them to commit suicide.
Despite her old age, however, Wu Zetian continued to be interested in finding talented officials and promoting them. Individuals she promoted in her old age included, among others, Cui Xuanwei and Zhang Jiazhen.
They initially got Wei's subordinate Zhang Shuo to agree to corroborate the charges, but once Zhang Shuo was before Wu Zetian, he instead accused Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong of forcing him to bear false witness.
As a result, Wei, Gao, and Zhang Shuo were exiled, but escaped death. Subsequently, charges of corruption against Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong were renewed by the chancellor Wei Anshi.
In winter , Wu Zetian became seriously ill for a period, and only the Zhang brothers were allowed to see her; the chancellors were not.
This led to speculation that Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong were plotting to take over the throne, and there were repeated accusations of treason.
Once her condition improved, Cui Xuanwei advocated that only Li Xian and Li Dan be allowed to attend to her—a suggestion that she did not accept.
After further accusations against the Zhang brothers by Huan and Song Jing , Wu Zetian allowed Song to investigate, but before the investigation was completed, she issued a pardon for Zhang Yizhi, derailing Song's investigation.
By spring , Wu Zetian was seriously ill again. Zhang Jianzhi , Jing Hui , and Yuan Shuji , planned a coup to kill the Zhang brothers. They then reported to her that the Zhang brothers had been executed for treason, and they then forced her to yield the throne to Li Xian.
On 21 February, an edict was issued in her name that made Li Xian regent, and on 22 February, an edict was issued in her name passing the throne to Li Xian.
Wu Zetian proclaimed herself as the ruler of the " Zhou dynasty ", named after the historical Zhou dynasty — BC ; and, thus, from to the Chinese Empire was known as the Zhou dynasty.
The traditional historical view, however, is to discount Wu's "Zhou dynasty": dynasties by definition involve the succession of rulers from one family: Wu's "Zhou dynasty" was founded by her, and ended within her lifetime, with her abdication This does not meet the traditional concept of a dynasty.
The alternative, is to view Wu's "Zhou dynasty" as the revival of the generally historically-accepted historical Zhou dynasty, which had been ruled at least nominally by the Ji family, almost a thousand years before.
Either way, Wu's Zhou dynasty is best viewed as a brief interruption of the Li family's Tang dynasty, rather than as a fully realized dynasty.
Her claim of founding a new dynasty, however, was little opposed at the time Though the fifteen years of Wu Zetian's Zhou dynasty had its own notable characteristics, these are difficult to separate from Wu's reign of power, which lasted for about half of a century.
Wu Zetian's consolidation of power in part relied on a system of spies. She used informants to choose persons to eliminate, a process which peaked in , with the wholesale demotion, exile, or killing of various aristocratic families and scholars, furthermore prohibiting their sons from holding office.
One apparatus of government which fell into Wu's power was the imperial examination system: the basic theory and practice of which was to recruit into government service those men who were the best educated, talented, and having the best potential to perform their duties, and to do so by testing a pool of candidates in order to determine this objectively.
This pool was male only, and the qualified pool of candidates and resulting placements into official positions was on a relatively small scale at the time of Wu's assuming control of government.
The official tests examined such things considered important for functionaries of the highly developed, bureaucratic government structure of the current imperial government.
The qualities sought in a candidate for government service included determining the potential official's level of literacy in terms of reading and writing as well as his possession of the specific knowledge considered necessary and desirable for a governmental official, such as Confucian precepts on the nature of virtue and theory on the proper ordering of and relationships within society.
Wu Zetian continued to use the imperial examination system to recruit civil servants, and she introduced major changes in regard to the system that she inherited, including increasing the pool of candidates permitted to take the test, by allowing commoners and gentry, who were previously disqualified by their background, to take them.
Another thing she did was to expand the governmental examination system and to greatly increase the importance of this method of recruiting government officials, which she did in Wu Zetian eliminated many of her real, potential, or perceived rivals to power by means of death including execution, suicide by command, and more-or-less directly killing people , demotion, and exile.
Mostly this was carried out by her secret police, led by individuals like Wao Ganjun and Lai Junchen —who were known to have written a document called the Manual of Accusation , which detailed steps for interrogation and obtaining confessions by torture.
Wu targeted various individuals, including many in her own family and her extended family. In reaction to an attempt to remove her from power, in , she massacred twelve entire collateral branches of the imperial family.
The old area of the Qin state was later referred to as Guanzhong , literally, the area "within the fortified mountain passes". It was from this area of northwest China that the Ying family of Qin arose to conquer, unifying China into its first historical empire.
During the Han dynasty , Sima Qian records in his Shiji that Guanzhong had three-tenths of China's population, but six-tenths of its wealth.
The Guangzhong aristocracy was not willing to relinquish their hold on the reins of government, however; while, at the same time, some of the more newly wealthy families in other areas, such as the North China Plain or Hubei were eager for a larger share of national power of their own.
Most of the opposition to Wu was from the Guangzhong families of northwest China. Accordingly, she repressed them, instead favoring less privileged families, thus raising to the ranks of power many talented, but less aristocratic families, often recruited through the official examination system.
Wu Zetian used her power to increase or to attempt to increase her power by manipulating Buddhist, Daoist , and Confucianist practice, sometimes in reference to the idea of the Mandate of Heaven.
There are also allegations of witchcraft or sorcery. Wu began to manipulate the symbolic aspects of religious and imperial power long before she became huangdi , one case being the Sacrifice on Mount Tai, in When Emperor Gaozong offered sacrifices to the deities of heaven and earth at Mount Tai , Empress Wu, in an unprecedented action, offered sacrifices after him, with Princess Dowager Yan, mother of Emperor Gaozong's brother Li Zhen , Prince of Yue, offering sacrifices after her.
Many of Wu Zetian's measures were of a popular nature, and helped her to gain support for her rule. Wu Zetian came to power during a time in China in which the people were fairly contented, the administration was run well, and the economy was characterized by rising living standards.
She was determined that free, self-sufficient farmers would continue to work on their own farm land, so she periodically used the juntian , equal-field system , together with updated census figures to ensure fair land allocations, re-allocating as necessary.
Wu Zetian used her military and diplomatic skills to enhance her position. The fubing system of self-supportive soldier-farmer colonies, which provided local militia and labor services for her government, allowed her to maintain her armed forces at reduced expense.
Expansion efforts against Tibet and to the northwest were less successful. Allying with the Korean kingdom of Silla against Goguryeo with the promise of ceding Goguryeo's territory to Silla, Chinese forces occupied Goguryeo after its defeat, and even began to occupy Silla territory.
Silla resisted the imposition of Chinese rule, and by allying with Goguryeo and Baekche, was able to expel its former ally from the peninsula.
Hong argues that Silla's success was in part due to a shift in Empress Wu's focus to Tibet and inadequate support for the forces in the Korean peninsula.
Another significant event of Wu Zetian's reign was , shortly after the Muslim conquest of Persia , when the first Arab ambassador arrived in China.
Around the new year , Empress Wu submitted twelve suggestions. One was that the work of Laozi whose family name was Li and to whom the Tang imperial clan traced its ancestry , Tao Te Ching , should be added to the required reading for imperial university students.
Another was that a three-year mourning period should be observed for a mother's death in all cases, not only in those cases when the father was no longer alive.
Emperor Gaozong praised her for her suggestions and adopted them. In , Empress Dowager Wu's cousin's son Zong Qinke submitted a number of modified Chinese characters intended to showcase Empress Dowager Wu's greatness.
On 18 August , [ citation needed ] she approved of the requests. Beside her own literary work, Wu Zetian's court was a focus of literary creativity.
Forty-six of Wu's poems are collected in the Quan Tangshi "Collected Tang Poems" and sixty-one essays under her name are recorded in the Quan Tangwen "Collected Tang Essays".
During Wu Zetian's reign, the imperial court produced various works for which she was a sponsor, such as the anthology of the poetry of her court known as the Zhuying ji "Collection of Precious Glories", which contained poems by Cui Rong , Li Jiao , Zhang Yue , and others, arranged according to the official rank at the court of the individuals included.
Wu Zetian also engaged in patronage of scholars by founding an institute to produce the Collection of Biographies of Famous Women. Considering the events of her life, literary allusions to Wu Zetian may carry several connotations: a woman who has inappropriately overstepped her bounds, the hypocrisy of preaching compassion while simultaneously engaging in a pattern of political corruption and vicious behavior and ruling by pulling strings in the background.
For many centuries, Wu was used by the establishment as an example of what can go wrong when a woman is placed in charge.
Such sexist opposition to her was only lifted during the late s when Mao Zedong 's wife Jiang Qing rehabilitated Wu as part of a propaganda campaign to suggest she be considered as a successor to her ailing husband.
In his biography Wu , British author Jonathan Clements has pointed out that these wildly differing uses of a historical figure have often led to contradictory and even hysterical characterizations.
Many alleged poisonings and other incidents, such as the premature death of her daughter, may have rational explanations that have been twisted by later opponents.
The traditional Chinese historical view on Wu Zetian generally was mixed—admiring her for her abilities in governing the state, but vilifying her for her actions in seizing imperial power.
Luo Binwang even wrote along these lines in a declaration during her lifetime, in support of Li Jingye's rebellion. Typical was a commentary by the Later Jin dynasty historian Liu Xu , the lead editor of the Old Book of Tang : .
The year that Lady Wu declared herself regent, heroic individuals were all mournful of the unfortunate turn of events, worried that the dynasty would fall, and concerned that they could not repay the grace of the deceased emperor [i.
Soon thereafter, great accusations arose, and many innocent people were falsely accused and stuck their necks out in waiting for execution.
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