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I was credited with a role in the production and songwriting of all releases under the group, such as their debut full-length studio album, Welcome Back , as well as their singles " WYD" , New Kids: Begin , their second full-length studio album, Return , New Kids: Continue , and New Kids: The Final.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. South Korean rapper. In this Korean name , the family name is Kim. I at the iKon Continue Tour in Seoul. Rapper Singer-Songwriter Record Producer Executive Director Philanthropist.
K-pop Hip-hop. YG IOK Company. See also: iKon discography and List of songs written by B. See also: List of awards and nominations received by iKon.
I profile on Naver". Naver in Korean. Retrieved May 25, I quits iKON over attempted drug purchase". The Korea Herald. Retrieved June 12, Retrieved 25 May Star News.
Topstar News. SBS FunE. Osen in Korean. Retrieved October 3, The ORAC assay was performed using a fluorescence spectrophotometer F, Hitachi, Japan , following a previously described procedure [ 31 ] with minor modification.
The AUC was calculated as follows: where is the fluorescence reading at initiation of the reaction, is the fluorescence reading at minutes, and is the final measurement.
Net AUC was calculated as follows:. The antioxidant capacity in 20 samples from four types of tea green, dark, oolong, and black teas was determined by reduction of the 2,2-diphenylpicryhydrazyl DPPH radical according to the published method [ 32 ].
For each extract, a blank of 1. The percentage inhibition of DPPH was calculated according to the equation below [ 33 ]: where is the absorbance of the DPPH solution, is the absorbance of the tea extract in the presence of DPPH solution, and is the absorbance of the tea extract solution without DPPH.
Each sample was analyzed in triplicate. The anti-DPPH efficiency AE was also calculated as [ 34 ]. The antioxidant activity of EC, EGC, ECG, EGCG, catechin, gallic acid, and caffeine was measured using the online HPLC DPPH screening method [ 35 ].
The instrumental setup is depicted in Figure 2. The flow of HPLC-separated analytes and DPPH solution was 0. The length of the capillary 5.
The HPLC conditions were the same as described above. The results are summarized in Table 2. The contents of catechins in 20 samples from four types of tea were determined by HPLC.
The retention times were 7. At the same time, the contents of gallic acid and caffeine were also determined; the retention times were 3.
The results for the catechins are summarized in Table 2. It can be seen from Table 2 that the content of total polyphenols ranged from 7.
Of the selected 20 tea samples, Bi luo chun green tea had the highest content of polyphenols and catechins.
In addition, the correlation between catechins and total polyphenols in the 20 samples from the four types of tea was tested. The results, shown in Figure 3 , reveal a strong positive correlation between catechins and total polyphenols.
Table 2 lists the contents of individual catechins in the four types of tea. It is apparent that the content of esterified catechins EGCG or ECG is higher than that of nonesterified catechins catechin, EC, or EGC.
In comparison of the four types of tea, EGCG content was the highest in green tea 5. With the increase in the degree of fermentation, the EGCG content gradually decreased and the range of EGCG content in dark tea is only 0.
Among the four types of tea, the ECG content was the highest in black tea 3. A straight calibration curve was obtained for trolox antioxidant activity in the concentration range of 1.
Figure 4 shows the ORAC values of the selected tea samples; the ORAC value ranged from Huang shan mao feng green tea showed the strongest antioxidant activity.
Figure 5 shows the relationships between the ORAC value and total polyphenols and catechins, respectively.
A positive correlation was observed in each case, with for total polyphenols and for catechins. In addition, the correlations between individual catechin content and ORAC values in 20 samples were evaluated.
The correlations between ORAC value and content of catechin, EGC, EC, EGCG, and ECG, respectively, are shown in Table 3 , which shows a positive correlation for each case.
In green tea, the EC content showed a relatively higher positive correlation with ORAC values than catechin, EGC, EGCG, and ECG, and the values were significantly different.
For black tea, the EGCG content showed a relatively higher positive correlation with ORAC values than catechin, EC, EGC, and ECG, and the values were significantly different.
In contrast, the correlation coefficients between ORAC value and content of individual catechin in oolong tea and in dark tea infusions were not significantly different.
The free radical-scavenging activity of the 20 samples of the four types of tea was assessed by DPPH assay; the results are shown in Figure 6.
All sample extracts showed good inhibitory activity against the DPPH radical in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 and AE values of the tea sample extracts are summarized in Table 4 , where lower EC50 values or higher AE values suggest higher antioxidant activity.
For the 20 selected tea samples, EC50 was in the range 0. The scavenging efficiency of Huang shan mao feng green tea against the DPPH radical was the strongest; its EC50 and AE values were 0.
Figure 7 shows the respective correlations between the AE values and the content of total catechins and total polyphenols. In each case, good correlation was observed for total catechins; for total polyphenols.
The correlations between AE values and the content of individual catechins in the 20 tea infusions are summarized in Table 5 ; significant positive correlation was observed in each case.
Among the individual catechins in green tea, the EGCG content showed a relatively higher positive correlation with AE values than those of catechin, EC, EGC, and ECG, and the values were significantly different.
In the tests of antioxidant capacity in the 20 samples of tea, as measured by the DPPH method, it was not clear which component played the important role in antioxidant activity.
The recent development of the online HPLC DPPH method was used to our advantage in this study. This method, which is now used widely in the testing of food and agricultural products and in the pharmaceutical industry [ 35 — 37 ], allows the radical-scavenging activity of a single substance to be measured.
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